Istelahaat E Muhaddiseen Aur Kutub E Ahadees Ki Aqsaam


Syed Ibraheem Salafi

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Staff member
بــسـم الله الــرّحــمــن الــرّحــيــم
Istelahaat E Muhaddiseen Aur Kutub E Ahadees Ki Aqsaam

Hadees Ki Tareef:
"Rasoolullahﷺ Ke Mutalliq Rawiyon Ke Zariye Sey Jo Kuch Hum Tak Pohncha, Wo Hadees Kehlata Hai, Hadees Ko Baaz Dafa Sunnat, Khabar Aur Aasar Bhi Kaha Jaata Hai."

Buniyaadi Aqsaam:

قولی حدیث، فعلی حدیث، تقریری حدیث، شمائل نبوی۔

Qauli Hadees: Wo Hadees Jis Mein Aap (ﷺ) Ka Farmaan Mazkoor Ho.

Fe'li Hadees: Wo Hadees Jis Mein Aap (ﷺ) Ka Fe'l Mazkoor Ho.

Taqreeri Hadees: Wo Hadees Jis Mein Aap (ﷺ) Ka Kisi Baat Par Khamosh Rehna Mazkoor Ho.

Shamail E Nabawi: Wo Ahadees Jin Mein Aap (ﷺ) Ke Aadaat O Akhlaaq Ya Badani Awsaaf Mazkoor Hon.

Wazaahat:

متن، سند، متّصل، منقطع۔

Kisi Hadees Ki Asal Ibaarat "Matn" Kehlati Hai, Matn Sey Pehle Rawiyon Ke Silsile Ko "Sanad" Kehtey Hain, Sanad Ka Koi Rawi Hazaf Na Ho Tou Wo "Muttasil" Hoti Hai Warna "Munqate".

Nisbat Ke Aitebaar Sey Hadees Ki Aqsaam:

حديث قدسى، مرفوع، موقوف، مقطوع۔
Hadees E Qudsi: Allah(ﷻ) Ka Wo Farmaan Jise Nabi e Akram ﷺ Ney Allah ﷻ Sey Riwayat Kiya Ho, Rawiyon Ke Zariye Sey Hum Tak Pohcha Ho Aur Qur'an E Majeed Mein Maujood Na Ho...

Marfoo: Wo Hadees Jis Mein Kisi Qaoul, Fe'l Ya Taqreer Ko Rasoolullah (ﷺ) Ki Taraf Mansoob Kiya Gaya Ho...

Mauqoof: Wo Hadees Jis Mein Kisi Qaul, Fe'l Ya Taqreer Ko Sahabi Ki Taraf Mansoob Kiya Gaya Ho...

Maqtoo: Wo Hadees Jis Mein Kisi Qaoul, Fail Ya Taqreer Ko Tabayee Ya Taba' Tabayee Ki Taraf Mansoob Kiya Gaya Ho...

Rawiyon Ki Tadaad Ke Aitebaar Sey Hadees Ki Aqsaam:

متواتر، خبر واحد، مشہور، مستفیض،۔عزیز، غریب، غریب مطلق، غریب نسبى۔

Mutawatir: Wo Hadees Jis Mein Tawatur Ki Chaar Sharte Payi Jaye:

(1) Isey Rawiyon Ki Badi Tadaad Riwayat Karey,

(2) Insani Aqal Wa Aadat Inke Jhoota Honay Ko Mahaal Samjhe,

(3) Yeh Kasrat Ahad E Nabuwat Sey Ley Kar Sahib E Kitaab Muhaddis Ke Zamane Tak Sanad Ke Har Tabqe Mein Payi Jaye,

(4) Hadees Ka Taluq Insani Mushahide Ya Sam'aat Sey Ho...


Wazaahat: Rawiyon Ki Jamaat Jisne Ek Ustaad Ya Ziyada Asaatizah Sey Hadees Ka Samaa Kiya Ho "Tabqa" Kehlata Hai.

Khabar E Wahid: Wo Hadees Jis Mein Mutawatir Hadees Ki Sharte Jama Na Ho, Is Ki Chaar Qisme Hai:

Mashoor: Wo Hadees Jis Ke Rawiyon Ki Tadaad Har Tabqe Mein Do Sey Ziyada Ho Magar Eksaan Na Ho, Masalan Kisi Tabqe Mein Teen, Kisi Mein Chaar Aur Kisi Mein Panch Rawi Isey Bayaan Karte Hon.

Mustafeez: Wo Hadees Jis Ke Rawi Har Tabqe Mein Do Sey Ziyada Aur Eksaan Tadaad Mein Ho Ya Sanad Ke Awwal Wa Aakhir Mein In Ki Tadaad Eksaan Ho.

Azeez: Wo Hadees Jis Ke Rawi Kisi Tabqe Mein Sirf Do Ho.

Ghareeb: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Bayaan Karney Waala Kisi Zamane Mein Sirf Ek Rawi Ho, Agar Wo Sahabi Ya Tabayee Hai Tou Isey "Ghareeb E Mutlaq" Kahegen Aur Agar Koi Aur Rawi Hai Tou Isey "Ghareeb E Nisabi" Kahegen.

Wazaahat: Mazkoorah Bala Aqsaam Mein Sey Mutawatir Hadees Ilmal Yaqeen Ki Had Tak Sachchi Hoti, Baqi Aqsaam Maqbool Ya Mardood Ho Sakti Hain...

Qubool Wa Rad Ke Aitebaar Sey Hadees Ki Aqsaam:


مقبول، مردود۔

Maqbool: Wo Hadees Jo Wajibul Aamal Ho.

Mardood: Wo Hadees Jo Maqbool Na Ho..

Maqbool Hadees Ki Aqsaam Wa Darjaat (Sharayit E Qubooliyat Ke Aitebaar Sey) :

صحیح لذاته، صحیح لغیرہ، حسن لذاته، حسن لغيره۔
(1)Saheeh Li'zaatihi (2)Saheeh Li'ghirihi (3)Hasan Li'zaatihi (4)Hasan Li'ghairihi

Saheeh Li'zaatihi:
Wo Hadees Jis Mein Sehat Ki Panch Sharte Payi Jaye:

متصل، كامل الضّبط، شاذ، معلول۔

(1) Uski Sanad "Muttasil" Ho, Yane Har Rawi Ney Usey Apne Ustaad Sey Aakhaz Kiya Ho,

(2) Uska Har Rawi Aadil Ho, Yane Kabeera Gunhaon Sey Bachta Ho, Sageera Gunhaon Par Israar Na Karta Ho, Shaista Tabiyat Ka Malik Aur Ba-Akhlaaq Ho,

(3) Wo "Kamiluz'zabt" Ho, Yane Hadees Ko Tehreer Ya Hafize Ke Zariye Sey Kama'haqqahu Mehfooz Karey Aur Aagey Pohchaye.

(4) Wo Hadees "Shaaz" Na Ho,

(5) Wo Hadees "Malool" Na Ho.


(Shaaz Wa Maloom Ki Wazahat Aagey Aarahi Hai)

Hasan Li'zaatihi:
Wo Hadees Jis Ke Baaz Rawi Saheeh Hadees Ke Rawiyon Ki Nisbat

خفیف الضّبط۔

"Khafeefuz'zabt" (halke Zabt Waale) Hon, Baqi Sharten Wahi Hon.

Wazaahat: Hasan Li'zaatihi Ka Darja Saheeh Li'ghairihi Ke Baad Hai Magar Tarifaat Ko Aasaan Tar Karne Ke Liye Tarteeb Badli Gayi Hai.

Saheeh Li'ghairihi: Jab Hasan Hadees Ki Ek Sey Za'yid Sanaden Hon Tou Wo Hasan Ke Darje Sey Taraqqi Kar Ke Saheeh Ke Darje Tak Pouhch Jaati Hai, Isey Saheeh Li'ghairihi Kehtey Hai Kuy Ke Wo Apne Ghair (Doosri Sanadon) Ki Wajhe Sey Darja E Sehat Ko Pohchi.

Hasan Li'ghairihi: Wo Hadees Jis Ke Muta'id Sanaden Hon, Har Sanad Mein Mamoli Zuaaf Ho Magar Muta'id Sanadon Sey Is Zuaaf Ki Talafi Ho Jaye Tou Hasan Li'ghairihi Ke Darje Ko Pohch Jaati Hai.

Saheeh Hadees Ki Aqsaam Darjaat (Kutub E Hadees Mein Paye Jaaney Ke Aitebaar Sey):

متّفق عليه، افراد بخاری، افراد مسلم، صحیح على شرطهما، صحیح على شرط البخاري، صحیح على شرط مسلم، صحیح على شرط غيرهما۔
Muttafaqun Aalayh: Wo Hadees Jo Saheeh Bukhari Aur Saheeh Muslim Dono Mein Payi Jaye Muttafaq Aalayh Kehlati Hai Aur Sehat Ke Sab Sey Aala Darje Par Hoti Hai.

Afraadi Bukhari: Har Wo Hadees Jo Sahih Bukhari Mein Payi Jaye Aur Saheeh Muslim Mein Na Payi Jaye.

Afraadi Muslim: Har Wo Hadees Jo Saheeh Muslim Mein Payi Jaye Aur Saheeh Bukhari Mein Na Payi Jaye.

Saheehun Alaa Shartihimaa: Wo Hadees Jo Saheeh Bukhari Wa Saheeh Muslim Dono Mein Na Payi Jaye Lekin Dono Ayimma Ki Sharayit Ke Mutabiq Saheeh Ho.

Saheehun Alaa Shartil Bukhaari: Wo Hadees Jo Imam Bukhari Ki Sharayit Ke Mutabiq Saheeh Ho Magar Saheeh Bukhari Mein Maujood Na Ho.

Saheehun Alaa Sharti Muslim: Wo Hadees Jo Imam Muslim Ki Sharayit Ke Mutabiq Saheeh Ho Magar Saheeh Muslim Mein Maujood Na Ho.

Saheehun Alaa Sharti Ghairihimaa: Wo Hadees Jo Imam Bukhari Wa Imam Muslim Ke ilaawah Digar Muhaddiseen Ki Sharayit Ke Mutabiq Saheeh Ho..

Mardood Hadees Ki Aqsaam Inqataa' Sanad Ki Wajhe Sey:

معلق، مرسل، معضل، منقطع، مدلس، مرسل خفی، معلول/معلل۔

Muallaq: Wo Hadees Jis Ki Sanad Ka Ibtedayi Hissa Ya Saari Sanad Hi (Amdan) Hazaf Kardi Gayi Ho.

Mursal: Wo Hadees Jise Tabayee Bilawasta Rasoolullah (ﷺ) Sey Bayaan Karey.

Muzal: Wo Hadees Jis Ki Sanad Ke Darmiyaan Sey Do Ya Do Sey Ziyada Rawi Ekkhattey Hazaf Hon.

Munkhate': Wo Hadees Jis Ke Sanad Ke Darmiyaan Sey Ek Ya Ek Sey Zayid Rawi Muqtalif Maqamaat Sey Hazaf Hon.

Mudallas: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Kisi Wajhe Sey Apne Ustaad Ya Ustaad Ke Ustaad Ka Naam (Ya Taruf) Chopaye Lekin Sunney Walon Ko Yeh Tasur Dey Ke Maine Aisa Nahi Kiya, Sanad Muttasil Hi Hai, Halanke Is Sanad Mein Rawiyon Ki Mulaqaat Aur Samaa Tou Sabit Hota Hai Magar Mutaliqa Riwayat Ka Samaa Nahi Hota.

Mursal E Khafee: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Apne Aise Hum Asar Sey Riwayat Karey Jis Sey Us Ki Mulaqaat Sabit Na Ho.

Malool Ya Muallal: Wo Hadees Jo Bazahir Maqbool Maloom Hoti Ho Lekin Is Mein Aisi Poshida Illat Ya Aib Payaa Jaye Jo Isey Ghair Maqbool Bana Dey, Is Oyoob Wa Ilal Ka Pata Chalana Mahireen E Fan Hi Ka Kaam Hai, Har Shahskh Ke Bas Ki Baat Nahi..

Mardood Hadees Ki Aqsaam Rawi Ke Aadil Na Honay Ki Wajhe Sey:

روایه المبتدع، روایه الفاسق، متروک، موضوع۔

Riwayatul Mubtadi': Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Bidat E Mukaffara Ka Qail O Fa'il Ho Lekin Agar Rawi Ki Bidat Mukaffara Na Ho Aur Wo Aadil Wa Zabit Bhi Ho Tou Phir Us Ki Riwayat Mautabar Hogi Yaad Rahe Bidat E Mukaffara (Kafir Bananey Waali Bidat) Sey Irtaad Lazim Aata Hai.

Riwayatul Faasiq: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Kabeera Gunhaon Ka Murtakib Ho Lekin Had E Kufr Ko Na Pouhchey.

Matrook: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Aam Bol Chal Mein Jhoot Bolta Ho Aur Muhaddiseen Ney Is Ki Riwayat Ko Qubool Karney Sey Inkaar Kar Diya Ho.

Mauzoo': Wo Hadees Jis Ke Rawi Ney Kisi Mauqe Par Hadees Ke Mamle Mein Jhoot Bola Ho, Aise Rawi Ki Har Riwayat Ko Mauzoo (Man Ghadat) Kehtey Hai..

Mardood Hadees Ki Aqsaam Rawi Ke Zabit Na Honay Ki Wajhe Sey:

مصحف، مقلوب، مدرج، المزید فی متصل الاسانید، شاذ، منکر، روایه سیئ الحفظ، روایه کثیر الغفله، روایه فاحش الغلط، روایه المختلط، مضطرب۔

Mu'sahhaf: Wo Hadees Jis Ke Kisi Lafz Ki Zahiri Shakal Durust Ho Magar Nuqtaon, Harkaat Ya Sukoon Wagera Ke Badalne Sey Is Ka Talaffuz Badal Gaya Ho.

Maqloob: Wo Hadees Jis Ke Alfaaz Mein Rawi Ki Bhool Sey Taqdeem Wa Taqeer Waqai Hogayi Ho Ya Sanad Mein Ek Rawi Ki Jagha Dusra Rawi Rakaha Gaya Ho.

Mudraj: Wo Hadees Jis Mein Kisi Jagha Rawi Ka Apna Kalaam Amdan Ya Sahuwan Darj Ho Jaye Aur Is Par Alfaaz E Hadees Honay Ka Shuba Hota Ho.

Al Mazeed Fee Muttasil Asaanid: Jab Do Rawi Ek Hi Sanad Bayaan Karen, Un Mein Ek Siqa Aur Doosra Ziyada Siqa Ho. Agar Siqa Rawi Is Sanad Mein Ek Rawi Ka Izafa Bayaan Kare Tou Is Ki Riwayat Ko Mazeed Fee Muttasili Asaanid Kehtey Hain.

Shaaz: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Maqbool (Siqa Ya Sudooq) Ho Aur Aur Bayaan E Hadees Mein Apne Sey Ziyada Siqa Ya Apne Jaise Bahut Siqa Rawiyon Ki Mukhalifat Karey (Shaaz Ke Bil-muqabil Hadees Ko Mehfooz Kehtey Hain)

Munkar: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Zaeef Ho Aur Bayaan E Hadees Mein Ek Sey Ziyada Siqa Rawiyon Mukhalifat Karey (Munkar Ke Bil-muqabil Hadees Ko Maroof Kehtey Hain)

Riwayatu Sayyil Hifz: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi "Sayyil Hifz" Yane Paidaishi Taur Par Kamzor Hafezey Waala Ho.

Riwayatu Kaseeril Ghaflah: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Shadeed Ghaflat Ya Kaseer Ghaltiyon Ka Murtakib Ho.

Riwayatu Faahishil Ghalat: Wo Hadees Jis Ke Rawi Sey Faash Qisam Ki Ghaltiyan Sarsad Hon.

Riwayatul Mukhtalit:
Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Budhape Ya Kisi Hadse Ki Wajhe Sey Yaddash Kho Baitha Ya Us Ki Tehreer Karda Ahadees Zaya Ho Jayen.

Muztarib: Wo Hadees Jis Ki Sanad Ya Matn Mein Rawiyon Ka Aisa Ikhtilaaf Waqai Ho Jo Hal Na Ho Sake..

Mardood Hadees Ki Aqsaam Rawiyon Ke Majhool Honay Ki Wajhe Sey:

روایه مجهول العین، روایه مجهول الحال/مستور، مبهم۔

Riwayatu Majhoolil Aeen: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Majholil Aeen Ho, Yane Is Ke Mutalliq Ayimma E Fan Ka Koi Aisa Tabsara Na Milta Ho Jis Sey Ke Is Ke Siqa Ya Zaeef Honay Ka Pata Chal Sake Aur Is Sey Riwayat Karney Waala Bhi Sirf Ek Hi Shagird Ho Jis Ke Baais Is Ki Shakshiyat Majhool Teharti Ho.

Riwayatu Majhoolil Haal: Wo Hadees Jis Ka Rawi Majholil Haal Ho, Yane Is Ke Mutaliq Ayimma E Fan Ka Koi Tabsara Na Milta Ho Is Sey Riwayat Karney Waaley Kul Do Aadmi Ho, Jis Ke Baais Is Ki Shakshiyat Maloom Aur Halat Majhool Teharti Ho, Aise Rawi Ko "Mastoor" Bhi Kehtey Hain.

Mubham: Wo Hadees Jis Ki Sanad Mein Kisi Rawi Ke Naam Ki Saraahat Na Ho.

Kutub E Ahadees Ki Aqsaam:

كتب صحاح، صحاح ستّه/اصول ستّه/كتب ستّه، صحيحين، جامع، سنن، مسند، مستخرج، مستدرک، معجم، اربعين، جزء۔

Kutub E Sihaah: Har Wo Kitaab Jis Ke Muallif Ney Apni Kitaab Mein Saheeh Riwayaat Laaney Ka Iltezaam Kiya Ho Aur "Saheeh" Ke Lafz Ko Kitaab Ke Naam Ka Hissa Banaya Ho, Aisi Kitaab Ki Riwayaat Kam Az Kam Uske Muallif Ke Nazdeek Saheeh Hoti Hain, Aur Agar Wo Khudh Hi Kisi Hadees Ki Illat Bayaan Kardey Tou Is Sey Us Kitaab Ke Saheeh Honay Par Harf Nahi Aata.

Sihaah Sittah: Hadees Ke Chey Kutub Saheeh Bukhaari, Saheeh Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan Nasayi Jaame Tirmizi Aur Sunan Ibne Majah Sihaah Sitta Keh Laati Hain, Inhen "Usool E Sittah" Ya "Kutub E Sitah" Bhi Kaha Jaata Hai, Pehli Do Kitaaben "Saheehain" Keh Laati Hain Aur Yeh Sirf Apne Muallifeen Ke Nazdeek Hi Saheeh Nahi Hain Balke Poori Ummat Ke Nazdeek Sehat Ke Aalaa Darjey Par Faaiz Hain, In Par Aiteraaz Baraye Aiteraaz Karney Waala Shaksh, Sha Waliullah Muhaddis Dehelvi Rahimahullah Ke Ba-qaoul Ijmaa' E Ummat Ka Mukhalif Bidati Hai Jab Ke Aakhri Chaar Kitabon Ko Sunan Arba Kehtey Hain, Goya In Mein Zaeef Ahadees Maujood Hain, Taham Saheeh Hadeeson Ki Kasrat Ki Wajhe Sey Aksar Ulama Inhen "Sihaah Sittah" Mein Shumaar Kartey Hain.

Jaame: Jis Kitaab Mein Islam Sey Mutalliq Tanaam Mauzoaat, Maslan: Aqaayid, Ahkaam, Tafseer, Jannat, Dozakh Wagera Sey Taluq Rakhney Waali Ahadees Riwayat Ki Gayi Hon, Maslan: Saheeh Bukhaari Aur Jaame Tirmizi Wagera.

Sunan: Jis Kitaab Mein Sirf Aamali Ahkaam Sey Mutalliq Ahadees Fiqee Tabweeb Wa Tarteeb Par Jama Ki Gayi Hon, Maslan: Sunan Abi Dawood.

Musnad: Jis Kitaab Mein Ek Sahabi Ya Mutayid Sahaba Ki Riwayaat Ko Alag Alag Jama Kiya Gaya Ho, Maslan: Musnad Ahmed, Musnad Humaidi.

Mustaqraj: Jis Kitaab Mein Musannif Kisi Doosri Kitaab Ki Hadeeson Ko Apni Sanadon Sey Riwayat Karey, Maslan: Mustaqraj Ismayeel Alaa Saheehul Bukhaari.

Mustadrak: Jis Kitaab Mein Musannif Aisi Riwayaat Jama Karey Jo Kisi Doosrey Musannif Ki Sharayit Ke Mutabiq Hon Lekin Us Ki Kitaab Mein Na Hon, Maslan: Mustadrak Haakim.

Mujam: Jis Kitaab Mein Musannif Ek Khaas Tarteeb Ke Saath Apne Har Ustaad Ki Riwayaat Ko Alag Alag Jama Karey, Maslan: Mujam Tabrani.

Arba'een: Jis Kitaab Mein Kisi Ek Ya Mukhtalif Mauzoaat Par Chalees Ahadees Jama Ki Gayi Hon, Maslan: Arba'een Nawawi, Arba'een Sanayi Wagera.

Juz': Wo Kitaab Jis Mein Sirf Ek Rawi Ya Ek Mauzo Ki Riwayaat Jama Ki Gayi Ho, Jaise Imaam Bukhaari Rahimahullah Ki "Juz'ou' Rafyil Yadain" Aur "Juz'ul Qiraa'ati Khalful Imaam" Ya Imaam Bihaqi Rahimahullah Ki "Kitabul Qiraa'ati Khalful Imaam" Wagera.

Reference: ||Sunan Ibne Majah (Urdu Tarjuma Ke Saath Jo Darussalaam Sey Published Huwi Hai) Is Ke Jild 1 Page 50-56 Sey Liya Gaya Aur Romanised Kiya Gaya||

-Romanised: Syed Ibraheem Salafi
 
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