Umar Asari

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Assalamualikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh. Ek sawal hai Shikar kiya hua gosh khana kya Islam me Haram hai?
Walaikum Assalam Wa Rehmatullahi Wabarakatuhu
Shikaar kiya huwa gosht khaana jaaiz hai lekin iske kuch ahkaam hain jinhein neeche zikr kiya jaa raha hai:

Shikaar ke Ahkaam

Shikaar karne (صيد) ka matlab hai halaal jaanwar ko shikaar karna jo tab’ee taur par insaan se manoos nahi hota aur pakda nahi jaata. Aise jaanwar ko bhi صيد yani shikaar kehte hain.
Agar shikaar insaani zaroorat ke pesh-e-nazar ho to baghair karahat jaaiz hai aur agar zaroorat ke bajaaye sirf khel aur shughl ki khaatir ho to Makrooh (na-pasandeedah) hai aur agar shikaar ke sabab logon ke kheton, faslon aur maal ka nuqsaan ho to haraam hai.
Mazkoorah pehli soorat (yani shikaar insaani zaroorat ke liye ho to us) mein shikaar karne ke jawaaz mein daleel Allah ﷻ ka farmaan hai:
وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَادُوا​
“Haan! Jab tum Ehraam utaar daalo to shikaar khel sakte ho.”
[Surah Al-Maaidah: 2]

Mazeed farmaaya:
يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا أُحِلَّ لَهُمْ قُلْ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ وَمَا عَلَّمْتُمْ مِنَ الْجَوَارِحِ مُكَلِّبِينَ تُعَلِّمُونَهُنَّ مِمَّا عَلَّمَكُمُ اللَّهُ فَكُلُوا مِمَّا أَمْسَكْنَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ​
“Yeh Aap se daryaaft karte hain ke un ke liye kya kuch halaal hai? Aap keh dijiye ke tamaam paak cheezein tumhaare liye halaal ki gayi hain, aur jin shikaar khelne waale jaanwaron ko tum ne sudha rakha hai yani jinhein tum thoda bahut woh sikhaate ho jis ki ta’leem Allah ﷻ ne tumhein de rakhi hai pas jis shikaar ko woh tumhaare liye pakad kar rok rakhen to tum us se khaa lo aur us par Allah ﷻ ke naam ka zikr kar liya karo.”
[Surah Al-Maaidah: 4]

Aur Rasoolullah ﷺ ne farmaaya:
إِذَا أَرْسَلْتَ كَلْبَكَ الْمُعَلَّمَ، وَذَكَرْتَ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ فَكُلْ​
“Agar tum «Bismillah» padh kar apna tarbiyat yaafta kutta shikaar par chhodo to us ka kiya huwa shikaar khaa lo.”
[Sahih Bukhari: 5483. Sahih Muslim: 1929, Alfaaz isi ke hain]

Jab shikaari ke paas kutte waghera ke zariye se shikaar pahunchta hai to us ki do halatein ho sakti hain:
Jab shikaar haath mein aaya to woh sahih salaamat aur zindah tha to usey shar’ee tareeqe se zabah kiya jaayega. Sirf shikaar karna kaafi na hoga.
Agar shikaar karne se jaanwar mar gaya ya us mein zindagi ki ma’mooli si nishaani baaqi maujood ho to aisi soorat mein woh halaal hoga shart yeh ke us mein yeh shartein paayi jaayen:
Shikaar karne waala shakhs zabah karne ka ahel (laaiq) ho kiunki shikaar karne waala zabah karne waale shakhs ke hukm mein hota hai. Is liye us mein ahliyat (ability) ka hona zaroori hai, yani woh aaqil, musalmaan ya ahl-e-kitaab mein se ho, lehaza majnoon aur nashe mein doobe aadmi ka shikaar jaaiz na hoga kiunki un mein aql nahi, jaisa ke un ka zabah halaal nahi.
Aala (instrument) ka hona, aala do tarah ka ho sakta hai: Tez dhaar ho jo khoon baha de jis tarah ke zabah karne ke liye yeh shart hai, albattah haddi aur naakhun na ho. Shikaar karne ka aala shikaar ko chaudaayi ki jaanib se lagne ke bajaaye dhaar ya nok waali jaanib se lage aur shikaar ko zakhmi kar de. Agar shikaar ke liye aala (hathyaar) nok ya dhaar waala nahi hai. Masalan: Paththar, laathi, jaal, lohe (iron) ka tukda waghera ho to shikaar mar jaane ki soorat mein halaal na hoga, albattah bandooq se chhodi hue goli ke zariye se shikaar jaaiz hai kiunki us ke lagne mein itni quwwat aur tezi hoti hai ke woh jaanwar ko tez dhaar aale se badh kar phaad deti hai aur khoon baha deti hai.
Shikaar karne waale jaanwar ya parinde, jin ke zariye se shikaar kiya jaata hai aur unhein shikaar karne ki baqaaidah tarbiyat di gayi ho to un ka pakda huwa shikaar halaal hai agarche woh mar bhi jaaye. Khwaah woh jaanwar kuchli se shikaar karne waala ho jaise kutta ya panje se shikaar karne waala ho jaise baaz (ek parindah). Allah ﷻ ka irshaad hai:
يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا أُحِلَّ لَهُمْ قُلْ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ وَمَا عَلَّمْتُمْ مِنَ الْجَوَارِحِ مُكَلِّبِينَ تُعَلِّمُونَهُنَّ مِمَّا عَلَّمَكُمُ اللَّهُ فَكُلُوا مِمَّا أَمْسَكْنَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ​
“Aap se daryaaft karte hain ke un ke liye kya kuch halaal hai? Aap keh dijiye ke tamaam paak cheezein tumhaare liye halaal ki gayi hain, aur jin shikaar khelne waale jaanwaron ko tum ne sudha rakha hai yani jinhein tum thoda bahut woh sikhaate ho jis ki ta’leem Allah ﷻ ne tumhein de rakhi hai pas jis shikaar ko woh tumhaare liye pakad kar rok rakhen to tum us se khaa lo aur us par Allah ﷻ ke naam ka zikr kar liya karo.”
[Surah Al-Maaidah: 4]

Shikaari jaanwar ki ta’leem se muraad yeh hai ki usey shikaar pakadne ke aadaab sikhaaye jaayen, jab usey shikaar ke peeche chhoda jaaye to woh us ke peeche bhaag pade aur jab usey shikaar par ubhaara jaaye to woh us ka peecha kare aur jab woh shikaar pakad le to apne maalik ke paas le aaye khud na khaaye.

Jaanwar par aala (teer, goli waghera) shikaar ki niyat se chhoda jaaye chunanche Rasoolullah ﷺ ka irshaad hai:
إِذَا أَرْسَلْتَ كَلْبَكَ الْمُعَلَّمَ، وَذَكَرْتَ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ فَكُلْ​
“Agar tum «Bismillah» padh kar apna tarbiyat yaafta kutta shikaar par chhodo to us ka kiya huwa shikaar khaa lo.”
[Sahih Bukhari: 5483. Sahih Muslim: 1929, Alfaaz isi ke hain]

Maloom huwa ke jaanwar ko chhodna zabah ke qaayim maqam hai, lehaza is mein niyat zaroori hai. Agar kisi ke haath se aala gir gaya ya baghair iraade bandooq se goli nikal gayi jis se jaanwar mar gaya to woh halaal na hoga kiunki us mein niyat shaamil na thi. Isi tarah agar kutte ne khud hi bhaag kar shikaar pakda jo mar gaya to woh halaal na hoga kiunki maalik ne shikaar ki niyat se na khud kutte ko chhoda aur na «Bismillah» padha.
(Agar kisi ne bahut se jaanwar dekhe aur) ek jaanwar ko nishaana bana kar goli chala di jis se us jaanwar ke alawah aur doosre bahut se jaanwar maare gaye to sabhi halaal honge kiunki us mein shikaar ki niyat thi.

Teer, goli ya shikaari jaanwar chhodte waqt «Bismillah» padha jaaye. Allah ﷻ ka farmaan hai:
وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ​
“Aur tum aise jaanwaron mein se mat khaao jin par Allah ka naam na liya gaya ho.”
[Surah Al-An’aam: 121]

Mazeed farmaaya:
فَكُلُوا مِمَّا أَمْسَكْنَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ​
“Jis shikaar ko woh tumhaare liye pakad kar rok rakhen, us par Allah ka naam padho aur us mein se khaa lo.”
[Surah Al-Maaidah: 4]

Nabi-e-Kareem ﷺ ne farmaaya:
إِذَا أَرْسَلْتَ كَلْبَكَ الْمُعَلَّمَ، وَذَكَرْتَ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ فَكُلْ​
“Agar tum «Bismillah» padh kar apna tarbiyat yaafta kutta shikaar par chhodo to us ka kiya huwa shikaar khaa lo.”
[Sahih Bukhari: 5483. Sahih Muslim: 1929, Alfaaz isi ke hain]

Aayaat aur Ahadees se yeh mafhoom bhi nikalta hota hai ke «Bismillah» na padhne se shikaar halaal na hoga.
Masnoon yeh hai ke «Bismillah» ke saath «Allahu Akbar» kaha jaaye jaisa ke jaanwar zabah karte waqt kaha jaata hai, chunanche ek riwayat mein hai:
“Jab Nabi-e-Kareem ﷺ jaanwar zabah karte to «بِسْمِ اللهِ وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ» kehte the.”
[As-Sunan Al-Kubra Lil-Bayhaqi: 9/285. Mazeed dekhiye: Sahih Bukhari: 5498, Sahih Muslim: 1966]

Source: Kitaab: Quran-o-Hadees ki roshni mein fiqhi ahkaam-o-masaail, Page No: 2/474-477. Author: Shaikh Saleh bin Fawzaan Hafizahullah. Translator: Maulana Farooq Asghar Saarim
 
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