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Bila Shuba Jheenga Machhli Halaal Hai

Umar Asari

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#1
Bila Shuba Jheenga Machhli Halaal Hai

Tehreer: Shaikh Maqbool Ahmad Salafi Hafizahullah


Romanised By: Umar Asari

Jheenga machhli ke mutalliq logon mein ghalatfehmiyan pheli hui hain, is ki wajah ulama ke darmiyan mukhtalif qism ke fataawe hain, kisi ne jheenga (prawn) ko machhli kaha, kisi ne machhli nahi maana. Kisi ne us ka khaana jaaiz kaha, kisi ne na-jaaiz kaha to kisi ne makrooh e tehreemi kaha. Yeh mukhtalif qism ke fataawe logon ke liye uljhan ka sabab bane huwe hain, main ne is uljhan ko door karne ki ek chhoti si koshish ki hai.
Is masle ko suljhaane ke liye sab se pehle darya mein paaye jaane waale haiwaano aur machhliyon ke mutalliq shari’at ka hukm dekhna padega. Quran e Kareem mein Allah ﷻ ka farmaan hai:
أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَحْرِ وَطَعَامُهُ مَتَاعًا لَكُمْ وَلِلسَّيَّارَةِ وَحُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَرِّ مَا دُمْتُمْ حُرُمًا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ​
Tarjumah: Tumhare liye darya ka shikaar pakadna aur us ka khaana halaal kiya gaya hai, tumhare faide ke waaste aur musafiron ke waaste aur khushki ka shikaar pakadna tumhare liye haraam kiya gaya jab tak tum haalat e ahraam mein raho aur Allah ﷻ se daro jis ke paas jama’ kiye jaaoge.
(Surah Al-Maidah, Surah No: 5 Ayat No: 96)

Is Aayat mein jo ahraam ki halat mein ho uska hukm bataya jaa raha hai ke woh ahraam mein sirf darya ka shikaar kar sakta hai, jab tak ahraam mein hai woh khushki ka shikaar nahi kar sakta.
Aayat mein jo lafz “صید” aaya hai wo aam hai jo darya ki machhliyon ke saath saath tamam qism ke haiwanon ko shaamil hai. Aur “البحر” se murad har qism ke paani ka store hai chaahe talaab ho, nadi ho, naala ho, samandar ho ya darya. Is Aayat ka mafhoom yeh huwa ke woh haiwan chaahe janwar ho ya machhli jo paani mein hi zindagi guzaarta ho, paani ke baghair woh zindah nahi reh sakta woh sab shikaar mein daakhil hai aur us ka khaana hamare liye halaal hai.
Isi tarah Hadees mein hai Jabir bin Abdullah Radhiallahu Anhu se riwayat hai ke Nabi ﷺ se samandar ke paani ke baare mein sawal kiya gaya to Aap ﷺ ne farmaya:
هُوَ الطَّهُورُ مَاؤُهُ، الْحِلُّ مَيْتَتُهُ​
Tarjumah: Samandar ka paani paak hai aur us ka murdaar halaal hai.
(Sunan Ibn e Majah: 388. Allama Albani Rahimahullah ne is Hadees ko Hasan Sahih kaha hai)

Is Hadees mein do baaton ka zikr hai. Pehli baat yeh hai ke samandar ka paani paak hai. Doosri baat yeh hai ke samandar ka murdaar halaal hai. Yeh murdaar kya hai? Is se kya murad hai is ki wazahat doosri Hadees e Rasool ﷺ se ho jaati hai.
Nabi ﷺ ka farmaan hai:
أُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ مَيْتَتَانِ وَدَمَانِ، فَأَمَّا الْمَيْتَتَانِ: فَالْحُوتُ وَالْجَرَادُ، وَأَمَّا الدَّمَانِ: فَالْكَبِدُ وَالطِّحَالُ​
Tarjumah: Tumhare liye do murdaar aur do khoon halaal qarar diye gaye hain. Murdaar se machhli aur tiddi murad hain jabki khoon se jigar aur tilli murad hain.
(Sunan Ibn e Majah: 3314. Allama Albani Rahimahullah ne is Hadees ko Sahih kaha hai)

Ab baat wazeh ho gayi ke samandar ki mari hui machhli hamare liye halaal hai. Is Hadees se ek masla aur bhi wazeh ho gaya ke jab murdaar machhli jaaiz hai to zinda machhli chaahe kisi tarah ki ho badarja e awla jaaiz hai.
Quran o Hadees ki roshni mein yeh baat wazeh ho gayi ke samandar mein paayi jaane waali har qism ki machhli ka shikaar karna aur us ka khaana hamare liye jaaiz hai.

Kya Jheenga machhli Nahi Hai?
Ab hum yeh janne ki koshish karte hain ke Ahnaaf ne shak ki wajah se jheenga na khaana ziyadah ahtiyaat ka baa’is qarar diya hai aur us ka khaana makrooh e tehreemi likha hai. Is ki wajah kya hai? Talaash karne se ma’loom hota hai ke kuch Ahnaaf ke yahan jheenga machhli mein shumaar nahi hota, yeh ek janwar hai aur Ahnaaf ke yahan machhli ke alawah samandar ka kuch bhi halaal nahi jaisa ki Al-Bada’i, Fatawa Hindiyyah aur Durr e Mukhtaar mein likha hai. Halaanki teen imamon ke yahan jheenge par koyi kalaam nahi.
Jheenga ko Arabic mein “جَمْبَرِي” (Jambari), “إرْبِيَان” Irbiyaan, “رُوبِيَان” Roobiyaan, “قُرَيْدِس” Quraidis, “قَمرون” (Qamroon) aur “بُرْغوث البحر” (Burghoos ul Bahr) etc. Jab ki English mein prawns aur shrimp, Italy mein gambero (gamberetto), Roomi mein cammarus, Asbaani mein camaron, Turkey mein karides, French mein crevettes kehte hain. Is ki taqreeban 2000 qismein payi jaati hain.
Language ki kitaab, Medical ki kitaab aur Zoology ki kitaab dekhne se ilm hota hai ke in saari jaghon mein jheenge ko machhli ki hi qism likha hai. Qadeem (old) aur jadeed (new) lughat (dictionary) aur medical mein bhi jheenga machhli ke taur par milti hai. Ibn e Betaar ne isey ‘Irbiyaan’ aur ‘Roobiyaan’ likha hai. Sahib bin Abbad ne is ka wasf (sifat) batlaya hai ke yeh tedhi ungli ki tarah laal (red) machhli hai. Jawhri aur Firozabadi ne safaid (white) keede ki tarah batlaya hai. Dim’yari ne choote qism ka red colour waala kaha hai. Dawood Antaaki ne bahut pair waala red colour ka kekde (crab) ki tarah magar aksar goosht waala kaha hai. In saari books mein machhli ki haisiyat se us ka wasf (sifat) batlaya hai.
❀ Takmilat ul Ma’aajim ul Arabiyyah By: Reinhart Dozy (8/221) mein ‘Quraidis’ ka wasf Misr (Egypt) ke ‘Roobiyaan’ se zikr kiya hai.

❀ Muheet ul Muheet by Pitras Bustani (died on: 1300 h) Page No: 725 par ‘Quraidis’ ke mutalliq likha hai:
القريدس: سمكة صغيرة بقدر الجرادة أو أكبر قليلا وتشبهها​
Tarjumah: Quraidis (jheenga) ek chhoti machhli hai jo tiddi ke misl ya us se thodi badi aur us ke mushabeh hoti hai.

❀ Mo’jam ul Alfaaz Az-Ziraa’iyyah By: Mustafa Shahabi (Maktaba Labnan) Page No: 197 par yeh ibaarat hai:
الاربیان: ضرب من السمک وھوالقریدس فی الشام والجمبری فی مصر​
Tarjumah: Irbiyaan (jheenga) ek qism ki machhli hai, mulk e shaam mein usey Quraidis aur Misr (Egypt) mein Jambari kehte hain.

❀ Abu Bakr bin Duraid (Died on: 321 Hijri) ne Jamharat ul Lughah (3/1236) mein likha hai:
الاربیان: ضرب من الحیتان​
Tarjumah: Irbiyaan (Jheenga) machhli ki ek qism hai.

❀ Zubaidi ne “Taaj ul Uroos” mein safaid keede ki tarah machhli bataya hai.

❀ Jawhari (Died on: 393 Hijri) ne Sihaah (6/2351) mein likha hai:
الاربیان بکسر الھمزہ، ضرب من السمک بیض کالدود​
Tarjumah: Irbiyaan Hamza ke kasre (zer) ke saath, ek qism ki machhli jo safaid keede ki tarah hai.

❀ Kamaal ki baat hai Allama Firozabadi (Died on: 817 Hijri) jo ke Hanafi ul Maslak hain unhon ne Al-Qamoos ul Muheet ke andar likha hai:
الاربیان بالکسر: سمک​
Tarjumah: Irbiyaan (jheenga) machhli hai.

Is tarah be-shumaar lughaat (dictionaries) ki kitaabon se hawala diya jaa sakta hai. Kutub e lughaat ke alawah mukhtalif uloom o funoon ki kitaabon mein bhi isey ek machhli hi maana gaya hai.

❀ Abu Hilal Askari (Died on: 395 Hijri) ne “At-Talkhees Fi Ma’rifati Asma Al-Ashyaa” mein Irbiyaan (jheenga) ko ek chhoti machhli kaha hai.

❀ Abul ’Ala Al-Ma’arri (Died on: 449 Hijri) ne “Risalat ul Malaikah" mein «وھوضرب من السمک» ke zariye usey machhli qarar diya hai.

❀ Yaqoot Al-Hamawi (Died on: 626 Hijri) ne “Mu’jam al-Buldan” mein machhli ki qism kaha hai.

Upar zikr kiye gaye mukhtasar references se pata chalta hai ke new aur old languages aur mukhtalif uloom ki kitaabon mein jheenga machhli hi maani jaati hai. Saath hi yeh urf e aam mein bhi machhli se hi muta’araf (introduced) hai. Is liye hum dekhte hain ke jheenga machhli market mein milti hai na ke gosht ki dukaan par aur hotels mein bhi machhli ki list mein shaamil hai.

Hanafiyah ke yahan samandar ki saari machhliyan halaal hain. Imam Sarkhasi ne “Al-Mabsoot” mein likha hai:
جمیع انواع السمک حلال​
Tarjumah: Har qism ki machhli halaal hai.

Goya Hanafi Fiqh ki roshni mein bhi jheenga halaal hai. Chunancha Hanafi Alim Zafar Ahmad Usmani Thanvi Rahimahullah ne “A’laa us Sunan: 17/199” par likha hai:
وبالجملة فكل ما كان من جنس السمك لغة وعرفا فهو حلال بلا خلاف كالسقنقور والروبيان ونحوهم​
Tarjumah: Min-jumla jo lughaat aur urf mein machhli ho woh baghair ikhtilaaf ke halaal hai jaise kotari, jheenga aur in jaisi).

Lughaat ki kitaab, kutub e tibb aur haiwan, urf e aam mein jheenga machhli hai yeh saabit ho gaya, isi tarah Hanafi ahl e lughat ne bhi isey machhli likha hai aur saath hi mashhoor Hanafi Alim ne sarahat (wazahat) ke saath jheenga halaal likha hai. Neez Quran o Hadees ki roshni mein jheenga halaal hai woh pehle hi saabit kiya gaya hai balki yahan tak Quran se saabit hai ke machhli ke alawah paani par munhasir (depended) saare haiwan halaal hain. Saath hi khaane peene ki cheez mein asal hillat (halaal hona) hi hai siwaye us ke jis ko naam le kar haraam kaha gaya ho. Jheenga un haiwan mein se nahi jin ki mumani’at aayi hai goya qaaide ke according bhi is ka halaal hona saabit hai.
Lehaza ek saabit shuda cheez ko makrooh aur na-jaaiz kehna Allah ke hudood se tajawuz hai.
 
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